Menopause is when you stop having periods for good. For many women, this happens around age 50. The time of change before this is called perimenopause. It may start in your late 30s or 40s. It can last for months or years. During this time, your body makes lower levels of female hormones. This causes certain changes in your body. You may already have begun to feel the effects of these changes. By taking steps to relieve symptoms, you can still feel good.
The Menstrual Cycle
Hormones are chemicals that have specific jobs in the body. A menstrual cycle is caused by levels of 2 female hormones. These hormones are estrogen and progesterone. They are made by the ovaries. In a normal cycle, estrogen creates a lining in the uterus to allow for pregnancy. Estrogen then causes an ovary to release an egg. This is ovulation. Progesterone levels then start to go up. If the egg is not fertilized, progesterone levels go down. This causes the lining in the uterus to be shed. This is the bleeding that is your period.
Changes in Hormones
As a woman ages, her ovaries begin to make hormones less regularly. In some months, there may not be enough estrogen to cause ovulation. Or, progesterone levels may not be high enough to cause a period. The menstrual cycle will be harder to predict. Over time, the ovaries stop working. This can cause symptoms. Some women who have had their uterus taken out (hysterectomy) but still have ovaries may still have symptoms. When estrogen levels reach their lowest point, periods will stop completely. This is menopause.
Symptoms of Perimenopause
The change in hormones can cause physical symptoms. It can also cause emotional symptoms. These may include:
Periods that come more or less often
Periods that are lighter or heavier than you’re used to
Hot flashes, night sweats, or trouble sleeping
Vaginal dryness, which may make sex painful
Mood swings or fatigue
Medications That May Help
Some medications can help ease the effects of perimenopause. These include:
Low-dose birth control pills. These often contain both estrogen and progesterone. They can help regulate your periods.
Hormone therapy (HT). This replaces some of the hormones your body has stopped making.
Antidepressants. These help balance brain chemicals that may decrease during this time. Signs of depression can include often feeling sad or hopeless. If you feel this way, be sure to talk to your health care provider. Some antidepressants work for hot flashes too.
Online Medical Reviewer:
Grantham, Paula, RN, BSN
Online Medical Reviewer:
MMI board-certified, academically affiliated clinician
Date Last Reviewed:
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